Last year, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) hit both Facebook and Google with record fines relating to their handling of personal data. The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which is widely viewed the toughest privacy law in the U.S., came online this year. Nearly every U.S. state has its own data breach notification law. And the limits of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which impacts companies around the world, are being tested in European courts.

For artificial intelligence (AI) startups, data is king. Data is needed to train machine learning algorithms, and in many cases is the key differentiator from competitors. Yet, personal data, that is, data relating to an individual, is also subject an increasing array of regulations.

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